Type of fouling organism: Brown Algae
Algae include several groups of relatively simple, eukaryotic, living aquatic organisms that capture light energy with different pigments and use it through photosynthesis to convert inorganic substances into organic matter. Algae vary from small, single-celled species to complex multicellular species, such as seaweeds. Seaweeds live in the sea or in brackish water occupying both the inter and sub-tidal. The algae can be distinguished by the different pigments into three basic colours: red, green and brown. There are about 2,200 species of brown algae and most are marine. Typically, brown algae are larger and more species are found in colder waters. The kelps are the largest and the most complex in this group and are the only brown algae with internal tissue differentiation. The giant brown kelp is harvested for use in commercial products such as toothpastes, soap, ice cream, and a range of other applications.
Laminaria saccharina is a large yellowish brown kelp growing to approximately 3 m long. It has a small smooth cylindrical and flexible stipe with a ribbon like frond which is frilly and undivided.
Environment and Habitat
- sublittoral to depths of 30m with the greatest abundance at the low water mark on sheltered shores. Also found in deep rock pools.
- Reproductive type: Alternation of generations.
- Stock species particularly shellfish.
Effects and Impacts
- Problematic for stock species as can compete for space and resources.
Control/ Strategies and Management
Principles of Management
C Combat Settlement
- Found on Atlantic coasts from north of Norway down to northern Portugal.
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