Type of fouling organism: Bivalve
Bivalves are molluscs and include species of oyster, scallop, mussel, cockle and clam. All are aquatic and most are marine. Their body is laterally compressed between two halves of a hinged shell. Many bivalves are sedentary with a foot that secretes a number of byssus threads that enables them to attach to the substratum. Feeding is by way of two main ciliary tracts located on enlarged gill surfaces within the mantle which is contained in the shell. Hair-like structures (cilia) produce water currents and trap food particles beating them towards labial palps allowing small particles to be conveyed to the mouth
The shell of Anomia ephippium is thin and brittle and circular in shape, with a white or grey colour. Individuals can grow up to 60 mm in size. The right valve is smaller than the left and is usually flat with a hole for the byssus to attach to hard substrates. The left valve is convex and uppermost when viewing the attached organism.
Environment and Habitat
- Habitat - lower intertidal to subtidal (down to 150 m) attaching to hard substrates, including other mollusc shells and algal holdfasts.
- Reproductive type: Separate sexes.
- Mussel rope culture, oyster and suspended pectinid culture.
Effects and Impacts
- Problematic for stock species as can compete for space and resources.
Control/ Strategies and Management
Principles of Management
C Combat Settlement
- Distribution ranges from Iceland to West Africa and also found in the Mediterranean.
|© Copyright www.crabproject.com|